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File:Early Rus.png

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Map showing the distribution of early Varangian settlement, mid-ninth century CE. Varangian settlements shown in red, other Scandinavian settlement in purple. Grey names indicate locations of Slavic tribes. Blue outline indicates extent of Khazar sphere of influence.

Names in parenthesis indicate names of more familiar, and later, cities built on approximately the same site as the settlements named.

Note:There is controversy over the name of the original settlement at modern-day Rostov. Later Norse sources referred to the town (even in its earliest periods) as Rostofa or Ráðstofa. However, the original settlement (relevant to the period of this map) was at nearby Sarskoye Gorodishche, a later designation meaning simply "Citadel on the Sara River." The original name used by the town's Varangian inhabitants is unknown. For more information, see Rostov and Sarskoye Gorodishche.


  • Christian, David. A History of Russia, Mongolia and Central Asia. Blackwell, 1999. ISBN 0631208143.
  • Dolukhanov, P.M. The Early Slavs: Eastern Europe and the Initial Settlement to Kievan Rus'. London: Longman, 1996. ISBN 0582236185.
  • Franklin, Simon and Jonathan Shepard. The Emergence of Rus 750-1200. London: Longman, 1996. ISBN 058249091X.
  • Haywood, John. Cassell Atlas of World History.


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